An investor allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return. Types of investments include: equity, debtsecurities, real estate, currency, commodity, derivatives such as put and call options, etc. This definition makes no distinction between those in the primary and secondary markets. That is, someone who provides a business with capital and someone who buys a stock are both investors. An investor who owns a stock is a shareholder.
The assumption of risk in anticipation of gain but recognizing a higher than average possibility of loss. The term "speculation" implies that a business or investment risk can be analyzed and measured, and its distinction from the term "investment" is one of degree of risk. It differs from gambling, which is based on random outcomes.
Investors can include stock traders but with this distinguishing characteristic: investors are owners of a company which entails responsibilities.
Investor AB is a Swedishinvestment company, founded in 1916 and still controlled by the Wallenberg family through their Foundation Asset Management company FAM. The company owns a controlling stake in several large Swedish companies with smaller positions in a number of other firms. At year-end 2013 it had a market value of 190.9 billionkronor (€21.4 billion, $29.4 billion), a discount to the Net Asset Value of 11.4%.
December 31, 2013 (in SEK m.)
Core holdings: 204,705
Financial investments: 32,256
Other assets: 1,560
Total assets: 238,521
Net Asset Value: 215,419
In 1916, new legislation made it more difficult for banks to own stocks in industrial companies on a long-term basis. Investor was formed as an investment part of Stockholms Enskilda Bank, at the time the largest instrument of power in the Wallenberg family.
Investor held shares in the following companies as of 31 December 2013:
ABB - power and automation technology (8.4% stake, 8.4% voting rights)
A sponsor or patron is a person, usually a legislator, who presents a bill or resolution for consideration. Those who support it are known as cosponsors or copatrons.
A sponsor in the United States Congress is the first member of the House or Senate to be listed among the potentially numerous lawmakers who introduce a bill for consideration.Committees are occasionally identified as sponsors of legislation as well. A sponsor is also sometimes called a "primary sponsor."
It should not be assumed that a bill's sponsor actually drafted it. The bill may have been drafted by a staff member, by an interest group, or by others. In the Senate, multiple sponsorship of a bill is permitted.
In contrast to a sponsor, a "cosponsor" is a senator or representative who adds his or her name as a supporter to the sponsor's bill. An "initial cosponsor" or "original cosponsor" is a senator or representative who was listed as a cosponsor at the time of a bill's introduction, rather than added as a cosponsor later on. A cosponsor added later is known as an "additional cosponsor". Some bills have hundreds of cosponsors.